2021年公务员考试政治常识题(32)

“激湍之下,必有深潭;高丘之下,必有浚谷”蕴涵的哲理是(  )。A.对立统一的关系B.质量互变的关系C.肯定与否定的关系D.矛盾的普遍性与特殊性的关系2.古诗云:“眼处欣生句自神,暗中摸索总非真。画图临出秦川景,亲到长安有几人?”下列选项中与此诗所蕴含的哲理相同的是(  )A.近水楼台先得月,向阳花木易为春B.竹外桃花三两枝,春江水暖鸭先知C.纸上来的终觉浅,绝知此事要躬行D.日出江花红胜火,春来江水绿如蓝3.( 不定项选择 )“三个代表”重要思想的具体内容是()。A.始终代表全国各族人民的意愿B.始终代表中国先进社会生产力的发展要求C.始终代表中国先进文化的前进方向D.始终代表着中国最广大人民的根本利益E.始终代表着中国先进科学技术的发展方向4.科学社会主义理论的两大“理论基石”是指:        A.唯物辩证法和剩余价值理论B.唯物辩证法和价值规律C.唯物主义历史观和剩余价值理论D.唯物主义历史观和价值规律5.某资本家投入资本100万元,用于购买生产要素(生产资料80万元,劳动力20万元),经过生产过程生产出的商品价值为130万元,其剩余价值率为(   )。A.130%B.150%C.200%D.180%答案与解析1.答案: 解析: 对立统一规律揭示出,自然界、社会和思想领域中的任何事物都包含着矛盾性,矛盾双方又统一又斗争推动事物的发展。“急湍之下,必有深潭;高丘之下,健康饮食,必有浚谷”这句话蕴含着对立统一的规律。故正确答案为A。2.答案: 解析: 题干中这首诗前两句:眼见的真实情景激发心头的真切感情,就能写出意境神妙的诗句;闭门造车,就像黑暗中摸索制作出的东西,总要失真。后两句则说:靠临摹前人作品,画出秦川景色的画家,亲自去长安的能有几人?诗人省略了一句话,即难怪那些人画不好。本诗告诉我们:没有现实生活的感受,没有亲身体验,是不可能在事业上取得成功的。暗中摸索总非真和亲到长安有几人是没有亲临实践都得不到真实的情景。突出实践决定认识。纸上得来终觉浅,绝知此事要躬行,突出实践决定认识。故本题选C项。3.答案: 解析: 三个代表重要思想的具体内容是:中国共产党始终代表中国先进生产力的发展要求,始终代表中国先进文化的前进方向,始终代表中国最广大人民的根本利益。故本题正确答案为BCD4.答案: 解析: 科学社会主义是以马克思主义哲学和政治经济学作为它的理论基础,特别是哲学中的唯物史观和政治经济学中的剩余价值学说作为它的两大理论基石。本题选C。5.答案: 解析: 剩余价值率是剩余价值和可变资本的比率。剩余价值是由雇佣工人的剩余劳动时间创造出来的。在资本家的全部预付资本中,用于购买生产资料的不变资本的价值,在生产过程中被转移到产品中去,并没有发生价值量的变化;而用于购买劳动力的可变资本在生产过程中则实现了价值增殖,即带来剩余价值。本题中,生产资料80万元属于不变资本,劳动力20万元为可变资本,生产过程中所产生的剩余价值为(130-100)万元,即30万元。故本题的剩余价值率为30万/20万=150%,故正确答案为B。相关阅读:·2021年公务员考试政治常识题(55)·2021年公务员考试政治常识题(54)·2021年公务员考试政治常识题(53)·2021年公务员考试政治常识题(52)·2021年公务员考试政治常识题(51)·2021年公务员考试政治常识题(50)·2021年公务员考试政治常识题(49)·2021年公务员考试政治常识题(48)

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